Roscosmos stands for the Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities, which performs numerous civilian activities and coordinated for the military launches with the Russian Defence Ministry. It is a Russian-based coordinating hub for conducting space activities. It is formed in 1992 and responsible for managing space programs in Russia. The headquarters of Roscosmos are located in Moscow. After the breakup of the Soviet Union, it shortly came to be in a distinct era. It has contributed to the formation of the International Space Station. The Government of Russia merged Roscosmos in 2015 with the United Rocket and Space Corporation, to form the Roscosmos State Corporation.
Contributed to International Space Station (ISS)
Roscosmos is one of the key partners in the International Space Station, as there is always one cosmonaut on it from Russia. It has merged with NASA (USA) in the 1970s, upon the 1975 Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, which experienced an American Apollo Spacecraft and a Russian Soyuz Spacecraft meet in the orbit of Earth. The cosmonauts and astronauts briefly worked hand-in-hand in space ahead of heading off for their own missions.
After the Soviet Union broke up in 1991, there was a shortage of funds for the Russian Space Program. Roscosmos was finally formed in 1992 to coordinate Russian-based space activities. The USA also worried that the fall of the Soviet Union might cause economic disbalance across the world. Therefore, NASA launched paid astronaut flights to the Mir Space Station, with its astronauts seeking language and technical training in Russia. The Shuttle-Mir Program has flown several US-based astronauts to Mir between 1995 and 1998. It further laid the foundation stone for the collaboration of ISS, Russian Officials were nominated to focus their resources on the ISS and de-orbit the Mir Space Station.
Russia was a crucial part of ISS formation from the beginning. Roscosmos contributed to the core space modules of ISS - Zarya, and Zvezda. However, these programs have only experienced a handful of failures over the space station.
Space Race Between the USA and the Soviet Union
The space race was a series of competitive technology that started between the Soviet Union and the United States of America, objected to display superiority in spaceflight. The race begins with the introduction of the Soviet satellite “Sputnik 1” in October 1957. The Government of America has already been planning to introduce its artificial satellite, and members were surprised when they saw that the Soviet Union, which was destroyed during World War II, was able to achieve this success first. The Soviet Union was followed by another success with the launch of “Sputnik 2”, which carried a dog in it, named Laika. In the same year, NASA was formed and publicly announced the creation of a mission to send human passengers into space.
However, the Soviet Union has to face its part of disasters. Eventually, it has focused on space station technology, most notably in the form of the Mir and Salyut Space Station Programs. Mir has hosted the longest human spaceflight to date: 1994 Valeri Polyakov. It has skills in the long-duration space run impressed NASA that decided to partner with Russia after the Soviet Union devastated in the early 1990s.
Baikonur and Vostochny
As of 2018, all astronauts leaving for the International Space Station left from Baikonur. This circumstance has started since 2011 after NASA has retired the ageing space shuttle. Moreover, the development and funding delays have tested flights, which is likely to start not before 2018.
Currently, NASA has purchased seats on Russian-based spacecraft for its astronauts, a practice that was objected jumping to $82 million per person. Its contributed to cargo launches, and launch hardware permits the country to send endless cosmonauts into space.
In 2011, Russia began the construction of another ambitious launch site - “Vostochny” - which is situated in Siberia, near the Chinese Border. Their long-term objective is to shift most launches to Vostochny, which is unlike Baikonur, located in Russia. Initially, it has the plan to have crewed launch start in 2018 at Vostochny, and there has already been launched at the facility. In 2016, three satellites were successfully launched, but after its second launch in 2017, a $45 million satellite has vanished.
Robotic Space Mission
Roscosmos is a key provider of launch services to other nations. Its Proton rocket line had a few difficulties over the years. The three Breeze-M upper stages have broken in separate launches across sixteen-month tenure, prompted a full review in 2012. Again in 2013, another rocket failed within 17 seconds after the launch. Few satellites have also vanished in failure in 2015. Besides launching satellites for other nations, Roscosmos conducts numerous satellite missions of its own. Some examples include Military Satellites, Earth Observation, Glosnass Navigation Satellites, and Telecommunications.
In 2013, “Fengyun 1C” (Chinese Satellite) crashed with “BLITS” (laser-raging satellite of Russia), resulted in the dismantling of “BLITS” from its orbit and crashed into two fragments.
Russia is looking forward to a significant “Mission to Mars” - ExoMars, which it’s conducting with the European Space Agency. In 2016, its first leg was launched successfully, while a rover is withholding for 2-years until an awaited launch in 2020.
Roscosmos is expecting that this mission will break the barrier of several miserable failed “Mission to Mars”, one of the notable is the 2012 Phobos-Grunt. Sources said that the country is interested in developing numerous robotic missions to Moon, which would be named “Luna-Glob”. However, the budget shortage has alleged hold back the first of these missions till 2025.